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La nación india Lummi

La nación india Lummi


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El Lummi original hablaba el dialecto Songish del idioma Salish, una característica cultural que persiste hasta el presente. Regresaron estacionalmente a sus casas comunales ubicadas en lugares dispersos en la reserva actual en el actual condado de Whatcom occidental y las islas de San Juan del estado de Washington. Su dieta rica en proteínas consistía principalmente en salmón, seguida de truchas, mariscos, alces, ciervos, otros animales salvajes, bulbos de camas almidonados y bayas secadas al sol. La estructura social de Lummi estaba centrada en la familia y orientada al pueblo, marcada por complejas interrelaciones. Los Lummi eran artesanos consumados en la elaboración de barcos, redes de cerco, casas y muchos otros artefactos, y formaban parte de una sofisticada red política regional. Los Lummi no comenzaron a experimentar influencias nacionales extranjeras hasta alrededor de 1800. Al igual que sus predecesores, los Lummi Los comerciantes estadounidenses no deseaban lo que producía la economía Lummi; más bien, querían agresivamente sus materias primas y tierra. A mediados del siglo XIX, el pueblo Lummi comenzó a experimentar la desaparición de sus vibrantes estructuras sociales y políticas. También alrededor de 1850, los Lummi se convirtieron al cristianismo gracias a los esfuerzos del católico romano Casimir Chirouse y más tarde de los padres oblatos. Se estableció una misión en lo que sería su reserva. En 1855, la Nación Lummi firmó el Tratado de Point Elliot con los EE. UU., Que pedía a los nativos que renunciaran a gran parte de su tierra natal en el territorio occidental de Washington. En 1909, los indios de la reserva Lummi, incluidas varias bandas más pequeñas, contaban en total con sólo 435 almas, una disminución a la mitad en cuatro décadas. En 1948, la Nación Lummi adoptó una constitución tribal, enmendada y ratificada en 1970, que creó la actual estructura gubernamental: un consejo empresarial tribal. Ese año, el consejo presentó un reclamo ante la Comisión de Reclamaciones Indígenas para obtener dinero adicional de los Estados Unidos, argumentando que la cantidad otorgada a ellos en el tratado de 1855 era demasiado baja. El 22 de febrero de 1972, la tribu recibió la diferencia en la cantidad de $ 57,000. Durante miles de años, los Lummi y otras tribus habían pescado sin afectar adversamente los recorridos del salmón. Sin embargo, a partir de la llegada del hombre blanco, la población de salmón sufrió un fuerte declive. Además, las represas cruzaban grandes secciones de ríos donde alguna vez se propagó el salmón. Lummi y otras 19 tribus del tratado también sufrieron bajo un siglo de políticas y prácticas por parte de la sociedad dominante que los excluyó de la pesquería comercial de salmón del oeste de Washington. El juez de la Corte Federal de Distrito George Boldt dictó una decisión que definió los derechos de pesca de los indios y garantizó a los indios tratados el 50 por ciento de la captura permitida de salmón. La pesca seguiría siendo el principal medio de vida para la mayoría de los Lummi. La tribu enfrentó el declive del salmón al formar un frente galvanizado que ahora juega un papel destacado en el mantenimiento de las poblaciones de peces de la región y en la gestión responsable del recurso salmón amenazado. Parte de ese esfuerzo está representado por su criadero de salmón de reserva.


Consulte el mapa de las regiones culturales de los nativos americanos.


10 cosas que necesita saber sobre Lummi Nation

La Nación Lummi es ampliamente conocida por su arte y artistas (Jewell Praying Wolf James y tótems # x2019, por ejemplo), su universidad (Northwest Indian College), sus personalidades (jugador de fútbol profesional / modelo de acondicionamiento físico Temryss Lane) y sus esfuerzos para defender el medio ambiente y los lugares sagrados.

Los representantes de la Nación Lummi y los Estados Unidos firmaron el Tratado de Point Elliott en 1855, que puso a disposición una gran franja del oeste de Washington para asentamientos no nativos. En el tratado, Lummi retuvo tierras y ciertos derechos dentro de su territorio histórico.

Hoy en día, la reserva Lummi comprende 21.000 acres (Lummi Nation Atlas, 2008) & # x2013, incluidas las tierras altas y los esteros en la península de Lummi y la isla de Portage & # x2013, pero Lummi ejerce influencia cultural, ambiental y política en todo su territorio histórico, que incluye a los San Islas Juan. Lummi Nation tiene más de 5,000 ciudadanos, el 78 por ciento de los cuales vive en o cerca de los límites de la reserva.

¿Qué sabemos realmente sobre la gente de Lummi? Para responder a esta pregunta, consultamos varias fuentes. Aquí & # x2019s lo que dijeron.

& # x201CSomos Salmon People & # x201D: Los Lummi son los Lhaq & # x2019temish, la Gente del Mar. Desde tiempos inmemoriales, su cultivo y supervivencia han dependido del salmón.

& # x201C Pescamos durante miles y miles de años, ya sabes, así que el salmón es un alimento básico principal de nuestra dieta, y siempre ha sido y sigue siendo muy importante & # x201D El artista de Lummi y ex pescador comercial Felix Solomon dijo en un video de el Museo Nacional del Indio Americano. & # x201CIt & # x2019s un alimento que satisface tu espíritu interior. Es nuestra identidad aquí en Lummi y nosotros somos gente del salmón.

Linda Delgado, gerente de mejora del salmón del Departamento de Recursos Naturales de Lummi Nation & # x2019s, le dijo a NMAI, & # x201CA que gran parte de nuestra cultura gira en torno al salmón. Esa & # x2019 es la forma en que vivíamos y nos manteníamos. & # X201D

Fuerte identidad: & # x201C Aún sabemos quiénes somos y de dónde venimos, & # x201D, dijo Tsilixw James, destacado artista, educador y jefe hereditario de Lummi Nation. & # x201C Nuestros antepasados ​​todavía están allí. Seguimos siendo un pueblo vivo. Todavía usamos todos sus nombres de lugares ancestrales. & # X201D

Lutie Hillaire, en el centro, levanta la mano en agradecimiento mientras ella y su familia cantan en Friday Harbor & aposs Jack Fairweather Park, en 2009. Lummi Nation fue honrada como la Primera Gente de la isla durante la celebración del 4 de julio en la ciudad y aposs.

Liderazgo fuerte: La Nación Lummi tiene una Oficina de Protección de Tratados y Soberanía que trabaja para hacer exactamente lo que su nombre indica. El Departamento de Recursos Naturales de Nation & # x2019s está explorando el desarrollo de energías limpias. Lummi & # x2019s Northwest Indian College organiza el Simposio anual de Estudios Indígenas Vine Deloria Jr., que reúne a líderes nativos y no nativos, académicos y otros & # x201C que están interesados ​​en honrar las causas a las que Deloria dedicó su vida y construyendo sobre la base él y otros ayudaron a construir. & # x201D El presidente de Lummi, Tim Ballew, es miembro del Consejo de Gobiernos de Whatcom, una organización regional.

& # x201C Nosotros & aposreamos líderes a nivel nacional e internacional: cambio climático, GWE (Ley de Exclusión de Bienestar General), cuestiones tributarias y pesqueras, & # x201D, dijo el artista y poeta Shasta Cano-Martin, miembro del Lummi Indian Business Council, el gobernante cuerpo de la Nación Lummi.

Una canoa Lummi llega a Friday Harbor en la isla de San Juan, para la celebración del 4 de julio de Friday Harbor & aposs en 2009. La isla de San Juan es el lugar de origen del pueblo Lummi y aposs.

Fuerte cultura de la canoa: Históricamente, la canoa fue el principal medio de transporte en el mar de Salish. La canoa nunca dejó de ser una parte vital de la cultura Lummi. Lummi está representado en las primeras fotografías de las carreras de canoas de guerra de la costa noroeste y la pesca con redes de arrecife en el mar de Salish, que involucró un arrecife artificial que conducía a redes colocadas entre canoas en las que nadarían los salmones migratorios. Lummi ha sido sede del Festival del Agua de Stommish y las carreras de canoas desde 1946 para honrar a los veteranos que regresan. Varias familias de canoas Lummi participan en el viaje anual en canoa. The Lummi Nation organizó el Canoe Journey en 2007, que contó con el potlatch público más grande de Lummi & # x2019 en 70 años.

Economía diversa. Las empresas económicas de Lummi Nation incluyen Silver Reef Hotel Casino Spa, con 105 habitaciones, un centro de convenciones y eventos, seis restaurantes, dos bares / restaurantes y una cafetería Fisherman & # x2019s Cove Marina, hogar de la flota pesquera más grande de la región y Gateway Center, hogar de Gateway Caf & # xE9, Salish Arts Market y Seafood Market.

Además, la Institución Financiera de Desarrollo Comunitario Lummi ofrece oportunidades para el desarrollo de viviendas y negocios a través de productos crediticios, educación financiera y capacitación empresarial.

& # x201C La pesca [es] nuestra forma de vida económica más valorada & # x201D, dijo cu-se-ma-a Cathy Ballew, cuyo sobrino, Tim, es presidente de Lummi Nation. & # x201CI siempre solía decir que el 98 por ciento de los Lummis son pescadores. Hoy, el porcentaje ha disminuido debido a la sobreexplotación y el cambio climático. Y nuestra gente tiene que aprender nuevas profesiones, en nuestra universidad o en un empleo práctico. & # X201D

El maestro tejedor de Lummi, Fran James, felicita a los estudiantes que vivirán y estudiarán en la Academia Juvenil de Lummi, en la academia y la apertura de aposs en 2008. James, quien caminó en 2013, fue un maestro durante mucho tiempo de la cultura y los valores de Lummi.

Talentos diversos: & # x201CSomos artistas de muchas artesanías & # x201D, dijo Vernell Lane, consultor de planificación de eventos del Lummi Indian Business Council. Lummi ha producido destacados atletas, escultores, pintores, artistas escénicos, narradores tradicionales, tejedores y & # x201C granjeros del mar & # x201D.

La educación es primordial: La Escuela de Acuicultura Lummi se convirtió en Northwest Indian College, que además de su campus principal tiene seis sitios satélites y ofrece títulos de licenciatura y # x2019s en Liderazgo en Estudios Nativos, Ciencias Ambientales Nativas, Gobernanza Tribal y Administración de Empresas y títulos asociados y # x2019s en Artes y Programas de Certificación y Ciencias, Ciencias Aplicadas, Artes Técnicas.

Lummi también tiene un centro de educación temprana, una escuela secundaria en la reserva y Lummi Youth Academy, que proporciona un entorno de vida y aprendizaje estable para los jóvenes en riesgo.

Enseñe bien a los niños: & # x201C Nuestra enseñanza es proteger el medio ambiente, preservar nuestra cultura y promover las enseñanzas tradicionales, & # x201D cu-se-ma-at dijo. & # x201CEducir a nuestros hijos en nuestro propio idioma, canciones, bailes e [cuentos], para saber cómo y por qué identifica quiénes somos & # x2026 [Queremos] asegurarnos de que los jóvenes comprendan y salvaguarden nuestra cultura para mantenerla viva . Nuestra música, canciones y baile tienen un significado importante y todos tienen un papel especial en la comunidad [para] mostrar quiénes somos y de dónde venimos. & # X201D

Protectores ambientales: La Nación Lummi ha estado defendiendo el Tratado de Point Elliott desde que se firmó el documento en 1855. Una gran parte de ese esfuerzo ha sido asegurar que Estados Unidos cumpla con sus responsabilidades de salud, educación y confianza. Otra gran parte es la defensa del medio ambiente. Si el desarrollo y la industria continúan degradando el hábitat, entonces no habrá salmón para cosechar y se violará el tratado.

La Oficina de Soberanía y Protección de Tratados de Lummi Nation & # x2019s señala que todas las personas & # x2013 nativas y no nativas & # x2013 se benefician del tratado y de un medio ambiente saludable. La oficina de protección ha estado liderando el esfuerzo para educar a la gente sobre los impactos negativos de una terminal de tren de carbón propuesta en Cherry Point, un sitio de aldea ancestral y el arenque de desove de arenque es un alimento forrajero importante para el salmón. En 2013 y 2014, Jewell Praying Wolf James, director de la oficina de protección y maestro tallador, llevó tótems con temas ambientales en un recorrido por las comunidades del noroeste amenazadas por el transporte de carbón y petróleo para reunir a las personas y hacer valer su derecho a un medio ambiente saludable.

Henry Cagey, entonces presidente de Lummi Nation, ayudó a abrir la Lummi Youth Academy en 2008. La academia ofrece un entorno estable de vida y aprendizaje para jóvenes en riesgo.

Como codirector de las pesquerías estatales y # x2019s, y para ayudar a reforzar las poblaciones de peces y mariscos para las cosechas, Lummi Nation opera dos criaderos de peces y un criadero de mariscos.

Cuidar el medio ambiente que los sustenta es un valor atemporal de Lummi. & # x201C Debemos caminar juntos como uno: asegúrese de tener esa impresión positiva y de retribuir a los demás y al medio ambiente, & # x201D dijo cu-se-ma-at. & # xA0

Honre a los portadores de la cultura: & # x201C Estamos decididos a mantener nuestra forma de vida natural & # x2013 respetando nuestra forma de vida tradicional, escuchando a nuestros mayores con respeto y honrando todas las enseñanzas que se nos revelan, & # x201D cu-se-ma- en dicho. & # x201CAs decía mi abuela Sadie, aprendemos algo todos los días y si no lo has hecho & # x2019t, entonces tu día no ha terminado. Nuestra educación comienza al nacer y nunca termina. No nos sentamos en un salón de clases y aprendemos, nuestras enseñanzas son prácticas y tú aprendes todo el tiempo.

El maestro tallador de Lummi, Jewell James, con sombrero de cedro a la izquierda, y su familia junto al poste de curación que talló para la Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina en Bethesda, Maryland, en 2011. James y su Casa de Talladores de Lágrimas han compartido la cultura y los valores nativos. a través del arte, tallando postes de curación para los sitios atacados por terroristas el 11 de septiembre y postes de temática ambiental para áreas amenazadas por la contaminación. Este poste de curación presenta elementos relacionados con la curación tradicional.

Richard Arlin Walker, mexicano / yaqui, vive en la tierra natal de Samish, Anacortes, Washington, a unas 80 millas al noroeste de Seattle.


Cronología de la historia de los nativos americanos

Años antes de que Cristóbal Colón pusiera un pie en lo que se conocería como las Américas, el extenso territorio estaba habitado por nativos americanos. A lo largo de los siglos XVI y XVII, a medida que más exploradores buscaban colonizar su tierra, los nativos americanos respondieron en varias etapas, desde la cooperación hasta la indignación y la revuelta.

Después de ponerse del lado de los franceses en numerosas batallas durante la guerra francesa e india y, finalmente, ser expulsados ​​por la fuerza de sus hogares bajo la Ley de Eliminación de Indígenas de Andrew Jackson & # x2019s, las poblaciones de nativos americanos disminuyeron en tamaño y territorio a fines del siglo XIX.

A continuación se muestran los eventos que dieron forma a los nativos americanos y la tumultuosa historia # x2019 después de la llegada de colonos extranjeros.

1492: Cristóbal Colón aterriza en una isla del Caribe después de tres meses de viaje. Creyendo al principio que había llegado a las Indias Orientales, describe a los nativos que conoce como & # x201Cindios & # x201D. En su primer día, ordena que se apresen a seis nativos como sirvientes.

Abril 1513: El explorador español Juan Ponce de León aterriza en la parte continental de América del Norte en Florida y se pone en contacto con los nativos americanos.

Febrero 1521: Ponce de León parte en otro viaje a Florida desde San Juan para iniciar una colonia. Meses después de aterrizar, Ponce de León es atacado por nativos americanos locales y herido de muerte.

Mayo 1539: El explorador y conquistador español Hernando de Soto aterriza en Florida para conquistar la región. Explora el sur bajo la guía de nativos americanos que habían sido capturados en el camino.

De octubre de 1540: De Soto y los españoles planean encontrarse con barcos en Alabama cuando sean atacados por nativos americanos. Cientos de nativos americanos mueren en la batalla que sigue.

C. 1595: Nace Pocahontas, hija del Jefe Powhatan.

1607: Pocahontas & # x2019 hermano secuestra al Capitán John Smith de la colonia de Jamestown. Smith escribe más tarde que después de ser amenazado por el Jefe Powhatan, Pocahontas lo salvó. Este escenario es debatido por historiadores.

1613: Pocahontas es capturado por el Capitán Samuel Argall en la primera Guerra Anglo-Powhatan. Mientras está cautiva, aprende a hablar inglés, se convierte al cristianismo y recibe el nombre & # x201CRebecca. & # X201D

1622: La Confederación Powhatan casi acaba con la colonia de Jamestown.

1680: Una revuelta de los nativos americanos Pueblo en Nuevo México amenaza el dominio español sobre Nuevo México.

1754: Comienza la guerra francesa e india, enfrentando a los dos grupos contra los asentamientos ingleses en el norte.

15 de mayo de 1756: Comienza la Guerra de los Siete Años & # x2019 entre británicos y franceses, con las alianzas de nativos americanos ayudando a los franceses.

7 de mayo de 1763 : Ottawa Chief Pontiac lidera a las fuerzas nativas americanas en la batalla contra los británicos en Detroit. Los británicos toman represalias atacando a Pontiac & # x2019s guerreros en Detroit el 31 de julio, en lo que se conoce como la Batalla de Bloody Run. Pontiac y compañía los rechazan con éxito, pero hay varias bajas en ambos lados.

1785: Se firma el Tratado de Hopewell en Georgia, que protege a los nativos americanos cherokee en los Estados Unidos y divide sus tierras.

1788/89: Nace Sacagawea.

1791: Se firma el Tratado de Holston, en el cual los Cherokee ceden todas sus tierras fuera de las fronteras previamente establecidas.

20 de agosto de 1794: La Batalla de las maderas, la última gran batalla sobre el territorio del noroeste entre los nativos americanos y los Estados Unidos después de la Guerra Revolucionaria, comienza y resulta en la victoria de los Estados Unidos.

2 de noviembre de 1804 - La nativa americana Sacagawea, con 6 meses de embarazo, se encuentra con los exploradores Meriwether Lewis y William Clark durante su exploración del territorio de la Compra de Luisiana. Los exploradores se dan cuenta de su valor como traductora

7 de abril de 1805& # xA0- Sacagawea, junto con su bebé y su esposo Toussaint Charbonneau, se unen a Lewis y Clark en su viaje.

Noviembre 1811: Fuerzas de Estados Unidos atacan al Jefe de Guerra Nativo Americano Tecumseh y a su hermano menor Lalawethika. Su comunidad en la confluencia de los ríos & # xA0Tippecanoe y Wabash es destruida.

18 de junio de 1812: El presidente James Madison firma una declaración de guerra contra Gran Bretaña, comenzando la guerra entre las fuerzas estadounidenses y los británicos, franceses y nativos americanos por la independencia y la expansión del territorio.

27 de marzo de 1814: Andrew Jackson, junto con las fuerzas estadounidenses y los aliados de los nativos americanos atacan a los indios Creek que se opusieron a la expansión e invasión estadounidense de su territorio en la Batalla de Horseshoe Bend. Los Creeks ceden más de 20 millones de acres de tierra después de su pérdida.

28 de mayo de 1830: El presidente Andrew Jackson firma la Ley de Remoción de Indígenas, que otorga parcelas de tierra al oeste del río Mississippi a tribus nativas americanas a cambio de tierras que se les quitan. & # XA0

1836: El último de los nativos americanos creek deja su tierra para Oklahoma como parte del proceso de remoción de indios. De los 15,000 creeks que viajan a Oklahoma, más de 3,500 don & # x2019t sobreviven.

1838: Con solo 2.000 cherokees que dejaron su tierra en Georgia para cruzar el río Mississippi, el presidente Martin Van Buren recluta al general Winfield Scott y 7.000 soldados para acelerar el proceso sosteniéndolos a punta de pistola y avanzando 1.200 millas. Más de 5,000 Cherokee mueren como resultado del viaje. La serie de reubicaciones de tribus nativas americanas y sus dificultades y muertes durante el viaje se conocería como el Sendero de las Lágrimas.

1851: El Congreso aprueba la Ley de Asignaciones Indígenas, creando el sistema de reservas indio. Los nativos americanos no están autorizados a dejar sus reservas sin permiso.

Octubre de 1860: Un grupo de nativos americanos Apache ataca y secuestra a un estadounidense blanco, lo que resulta en que el ejército de Estados Unidos acusa falsamente al líder nativo americano de la tribu Chiricahua Apache, Cochise. Cochise y Apache aumentan las redadas contra los estadounidenses blancos durante una década después.

29 de noviembre de 1864: 650 fuerzas voluntarias de Colorado atacan los campamentos de Cheyenne y Arapaho a lo largo de Sand Creek, matando y mutilando a más de 150 indígenas estadounidenses durante lo que se conocería como la Masacre de Sandy Creek.

1873: & # xA0Crazy Horse & # xA0 se encuentra con el general George Armstrong Custer por primera vez.

1874: Oro descubierto en Dakota del Sur & # x2019s Black Hills impulsa a las tropas estadounidenses a ignorar un tratado e invadir el territorio.

25 de junio de 1876: En la Batalla de Little Bighorn, también conocida como & # x201CCuster & # x2019s Last Stand, & # x201D Teniente Coronel George Custer & # x2019s las tropas luchan contra los guerreros Lakota Sioux y Cheyenne, liderados por Crazy Horse y Sitting Bull, a lo largo del río Little Bighorn. Custer y sus tropas son derrotados y asesinados, lo que aumenta las tensiones entre los nativos americanos y los estadounidenses blancos.

6 de octubre de 1879: Los primeros estudiantes asisten a Carlisle Indian Industrial School en Pensilvania, el primer internado fuera de reserva del país y # x2019. La escuela, creada por el veterano de la Guerra Civil Richard Henry Pratt, está diseñada para asimilar a los estudiantes nativos americanos.


Nación Lummi

Los pueblos de Lummi Nation son los habitantes originales de la tierra y las aguas costeras que ahora se conocen como Bellingham y Ferndale en el condado de Whatcom, WA. Son descendientes de una comunidad aborigen que habitó el archipiélago de la isla San Juan del estado de Washington.

Sus antepasados ​​eran un pueblo de la “ronda estacional” que pasaba gran parte de la primavera, el verano y principios del otoño cazando y recolectando, y regresaban a sus aldeas permanentes durante los meses de invierno. Conocidos como el "pueblo del salmón", su historia oral rinde homenaje a la Mujer Salmón y sus hijos.

El área que se conoce hoy como la Nación Lummi en el lado norte de la Bahía de Bellingham fue formada por el Tratado de 1855. Los Lummi son la tercera tribu más grande del estado de Washington, con más de 5,000 miembros.

Reconocido a nivel nacional como líder en educación y autogobierno tribal, Lummi Nation es el hogar del Northwest Indian College, que está acreditado como una universidad de 4 años que otorga bachillerato y atiende a 1,200 estudiantes anualmente de tribus de todo el país. Los directores educativos se centran en la creencia de que un programa de autoconocimiento debe incluir un estudio de la cultura, los valores y la historia de los nativos americanos.

Las conexiones con la tierra y el agua se han mantenido fuertes entre la gente de Lummi. Muchos son pescadores y artistas, preservando activamente sus antiguas tradiciones. Cada junio, la comunidad celebra su pasado, presente y futuro en el Festival del Agua Lummi Stommish, con carreras de canoas de cedro, juegos, canciones y bailes.


Nación Lummi

Canoas Lummi Nation por la orilla del agua.

Esta semana, la excursión de clase # 8217 nos llevó a Lummi Nation. Cuando llegamos a la tierra de Lummi fuimos recibidos por Lisa, la Directora de Recursos Naturales de Lummi Nation. Nos dirigimos al interior de la sede de Lummi Nation. Al entrar, noté la hermosa canoa de cedro que colgaba sobre nuestras cabezas y otras obras de arte cultural de los artistas de Lummi en vitrinas en el lado izquierdo y derecho del área de bienvenida. Subimos a una sala de conferencias para escuchar el trabajo de Lisa & # 8217 y de otros miembros de la tribu Lummi sobre los recursos naturales y la pesca con redes de arrecife. Lisa inició un video que nos dio la historia de la Nación Lummi, su conexión personal con la pesca y la resistencia constante que la gente Lummi ha soportado debido a la usurpación de sus recursos naturales. Una idea principal que saqué del video: desde la firma del Tratado de Point Elliot en 1855, los Lummi fueron prohibidos y expulsados ​​de la pesca.

& # 8220La nación Lummi come más salmón que cualquier otro lugar del mundo. & # 8221 -Ex miembro del Consejo de la Nación Lummi

Al final del video, un ex miembro del consejo se puso de pie y nos contó su historia con la pesca. Su padre creció pescando, pero durante la época de las guerras de los peces, fue arrestado. Esto lo llevó a mudar a su familia fuera de la reserva. Habló de la controversia con Lummi teniendo el primer criadero de estantería en los Estados Unidos. Después de vivir en la ciudad, lo que planeaba ser una visita de dos semanas lo llevó a permanecer permanentemente en la nación Lummin. Lo que me llamó la atención fue cuando empezó a hablar de la controversia con los peces de criadero. La gente dice que quiere pescado pero solo pescado que no sea de criadero. Esto no es sostenible. La gente quiere trabajar en la recuperación del hábitat, pero no es posible recuperarse por completo en este período de tiempo. Señaló que primero debemos dar los pasos para recuperar la población y luego trabajar hacia el hábitat. Se gasta dinero en la recuperación de peces sin ninguna responsabilidad. Un gran problema con los Lummi y otras tribus Salish es que están dedicando tiempo y apoyo financiero a la recuperación de estos peces, pero no hay un objetivo sobre cuántos peces NOAA intentará recuperar durante un año específico. Los Lummi quieren trabajar hacia un nivel de población pesquera de 1989.

& # 8220Es una cosa saberlo. Es otro creerlo. & # 8221 -Ex Consejo de la Nación Lummi Miembro

La siguiente oradora fue Ellie, la subdirectora del Comité de Pesca de Lummi. El hijo de Ellie se sentó a su lado. Su hijo describió la pesca con redes de arrecife como un arrecife artificial que recolecta peces. & # 8220Los peces nadaban a lo largo del fondo, a través de un camino creado en algas, limitado a los lados por arrecifes y / o islas. Al encontrarse con la estructura en forma de enrejado, que se colgaría con pastos marinos para crear un fondo falso, los peces serían empujados suavemente hacia la red propiamente dicha. & # 82211 Ellie habló sobre la participación de la tribu Lummi en Cherry Point. La invasión de sus tierras por estos petroleros habría sido el fin de la pesca Lummi. Como resultado, los habitantes de Lummi construyeron una red de arrecifes. La red de arrecifes crea un gran ejemplo de soberanía indígena. Esta práctica de Lummi se utilizó para proteger y defender la autoridad y la soberanía nativas. Esto se remonta al ex miembro del Consejo que dijo: & # 8220 Una cosa es saberlo. Otra es creerlo. & # 8221

En los últimos 2 años, los Lummi no han podido pescar salmón rojo. Ellie dice que si no pescan nada este año, los próximos 3 años no se ven nada bien para ellos. Esta primera mitad del día me abrió los ojos. Continúan luchando por su autoridad y soberanía. Saben que tienen su soberanía. Tienen que creerlo ahora.


Los primeros

Este pueblo de Coast Salish capturado por un artista en una de las expediciones españolas (1790-1792) a la costa noroeste está situado de manera similar al antiguo pueblo que una vez estuvo en Garrison Bay. Está ubicado sobre el agua en la base de una colina.

Una mujer lummi

La isla de San Juan ha sido un imán para la habitación humana. Su ubicación en el cruce de tres grandes vías fluviales, además de puertos protegidos, praderas abiertas y bosques aislados, atrajo a personas que querían jugarse una vida o encontrar descanso y relajación en medio de una abundante fuente de alimentos.

Los antepasados ​​del pueblo Salish de la Costa del Estrecho Norte de hoy comenzaron a aparecer a raíz de la capa de hielo continental que comenzó a retroceder hace 11.000 años. La evidencia arqueológica sugiere que la isla apoyó la caza y la recolección hace entre 6.000 y 8.000 años. La cultura marina que encontraron los primeros europeos en el área se desarrolló hace unos 2.500 años, y los rastros de sus aldeas que alguna vez fueron prósperas permanecen en los basureros de conchas que se encuentran a lo largo de la costa de los campamentos estadounidenses e ingleses y en todas las islas de San Juan.

Los antepasados ​​de la actual Nación Lummi consideraban a la Isla San Juan como una fuente abundante de alimentos y un lugar sagrado. Esta imagen de una familia Lummi con vestimenta tradicional probablemente fue tomada alrededor de los siglos XIX y XX.

Una mujer de Coast Salish cosecha mariscos en la playa utilizando un palo y una canasta tejida con fibras naturales. Haga clic en la imagen para conocer cómo una tejedora lummi contemporánea, Anna Jefferson, practicaba su oficio de manera tradicional.

Biblioteca del Congreso / Video: Sistema de bibliotecas del condado de Whatcom (WCLS)

En los primeros tiempos históricos, los pueblos indígenas de las islas San Juan y las áreas continentales cercanas eran principalmente miembros de seis tribus salish de la costa central que hablaban el idioma del estrecho del norte: sooke, saanich, songhee, lummi, samish y semiahmoo. Otra tribu Salish de la Costa Central que entró en el país del Estrecho del Norte hablaba el idioma Klallam (o Clallam) estrechamente relacionado.

In addition to sharing these languages, the Central Coast Salish tribes shared a culture and way of life through which they used a wide range of marine, riverine, and terrestrial resources. They followed patterns of seasonal movement between islands and the mainland and from large winter villages to smaller resource collection camps occupied in the other seasons. Because of the exposure to severe winter winds and storms of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, those sites found within the Cattle Point-Mount Finlayson-South Beach area were considered to be more likely seasonal subsistence and resource collection and processing camps, rather than permanent settlements.

los Lummi are one of the Coast Salish peoples whose ancestors lived in the San Juan Islands. Below are quotes from Lummi elders, which are examples of oral tradition. They are from a book called Lummi Elders Speak:

We had all kinds of food. We had food that was gathered and preserved for the winter like salmon and clams and berries. And fresh ducks. There are times when the weather is right and they would know just what to gather like a certain kind of berry. It took a lot of training and it took advice on how to do all of this. They didn't just go and gather too much food. They only gathered a lot of food when they were preparing for winter. -- Al Charles

We went out to the islands to get berries, fish. - Isadore Tom


When they were gathering food the Indian people never stopped in one place. Didn't have no reservation then. They went from place to place… They had seasons for these moves. Like right now there's the herring season… Steelhead run in December… They know when the clams are good. They know all these seasons. -
James Joseph

The Royal Marine detachment camp, shown in this c. 1865 painting, was built in March 1860 atop a shell midden left over more than 2,000 years before by Garrison Bay's first residents. Note the canoes in lower left. It appears as if the Indians are giving canoe paddling lessons to the Royal Marines.

The devastation of European diseases made the Coast Salish people vulnerable to slave raids from the Lekwiltok from Johnstone Straits on the east side of Vancouver Island. In response they built forts, which were described by Lt. Joseph Baker during the George Vancouver explorations.

Archaeologists call the way of life described by the Lummi elders a seasonal round. In a seasonal round, people live at different places during specific times of the year. At each place, certain plants and animals were ready to be harvested.

During the winter, they lived in villages near the shore. English Camp was an ideal spot for a village because it is on a quiet bay, protected from harsh winter winds by the surrounding hills. The quiet bay provided a safe place to dock canoes and fish during the winter.

Coast Salish families passed down sites for fishing, hunting, and gathering many plants. Cattle Point was an abundant site for gathering food. People fished for salmon off the coast and gathered large amounts of shellfish, and gathered camas bulbs and other plants from the prairie. They stored all of these foods for use in the winter.

European diseases, probably introduced by the 1774 Spanish voyage conducted by the navigator Juan Perez, reduced this population to a scattering of villages long before 1791, when the Isla y Archipelago de San Juan was first named by Francisco Eliza, a Spanish explorer charged with retrenching the Spanish presence in the Pacific Northwest. That same year Eliza reported that at Point Roberts, north of the archipelago, ". an incredible quantity of salmon and numerous Indians. " which the ethnologist, Dr. Wayne Suttles, speculated indicated the ancient technique of reef netting.

These bone harpoon points excavated by archaeological field school at American Camp date from 2,500 years ago to the early 19th century.

Fifty years later, in October 1853, James Alden of the U.S. Coast Survey enthused about the maritime resources. "Salmon abound in great quantities at certain seasons of the year, when the water in every direction seems to be filled with them…The Hudson's Bay Company has a fishing establishment at San Juan … where I am informed they have put up this season 600 barrels of salmon."

The Company purchased the fish from Lummi, Songee and other groups and processed them at salmon salting stations on the island starting in 1851. One blanket bought 60 fish, which, according to company records amounted to some 2,000 to 3,000 barrels a season.

The five salmon runs—king (chinook), sockeye, cohoe (silver), pink and chum-- were so extensive that, short of ecological disaster or broken rhythm, the Indians could not miss. Four methods were used: Hook line, encirclement, entanglement and entrapment. Hook and line involved trolling outboard in deep water and was employed mainly for the immediate consumption or later the fresh fish market. The species were mainly Kings and silvers.

Lummi master carver Jewell James was one of the keynote speakers during a ceremony at English Camp, a Lummi ancestral home.

In 1858 Caleb Kennerly, a naturalist with the Northwest Boundary Survey, proclaimed the Salmon Bank on the southern end of the island as "…perhaps the best fishing grounds on Puget Sound," where "numerous bands of Indians" seasonally encamped ashore. These included not only local Coast Salish groups, who plied reef nets, but also Northwest Coast people from the British Columbia coast and southeast Alaska. Those "with the proper appliances" for fishing could make money, Kennerly predicted.

Unfortunately for the American Indian and First Nations peoples, Kennerly's predictions came true.

Geologically speaking, the bank is a submerged ridge formed by moraines left by the glacier that receded starting about 11,000 years ago. But its cultural and economic impact reverberates to this day. Kennerly's "appliances" were profoundly realized in 1894 with the introduction of fish traps, an adaptation of the Indian reef nets, which could trap thousands of sockeye salmon in a single season. Motorized purse seiners, heretofore powered by oars, and the rising sports fishing market soon rivaled the traps.

The competition came to a head in 1934 when the fish traps were banned, and the job market slumped. By then the old Indian fishery, the camas patches and mounds of clam shells had slipped into memory.

Hopefully those memories will soon be refreshed as the Lummi Nation, in hopes of restoring the traditional reef netting methods, in July and August 2014 tested the waters off San Juan Island's western coastline. They beached a large canoe and camped on the English Camp shoreline (once known as Smuh-yuh (phonetic spelling), according Suttles) probably for the first time since the 19th century.

November is National Native American Heritage Month. The Library of Congress, National Archives and Records Administration, National Endowment for the Humanities, National Gallery of Art, National Park Service, Smithsonian Institution and United States Holocaust Memorial Museum join in paying tribute to the rich ancestry and traditions of Native Americans.


A Native American tribe demands the return of its spiritual relative — an orca

BELLINGHAM, Wash. (RNS) — Whales are a staple in the waters off the Pacific Northwest.

The local culture is so wrapped up in a whale identity that Seattle’s metro bus cards are called “orca” passes for the type of whale also known as killer.

“I believe we have orcas in our soul in this state,” Washington Gov. Jay Inslee said last spring.

And the native tribes see them as spiritual relatives.

That’s why not only the locals but also people around the world were transfixed for 17 days this past summer as a 20-year-old orca — known as J-35 or Tahlequah — birthed a calf, only to see it die a half-hour later. When The Seattle Times asked for reaction, more than 1,000 people responded, expressing their grief through poems, art, even a killer-whale ballet.

Then J-50, another female orca, died of starvation from a shortage of chinook salmon in overfished Puget Sound. The publicity led to demands that four dams on the Lower Snake River be removed to increase migrating salmon runs and that water levels increase to save the local group of orcas from extinction. Only 74 are left, and the prognosis for their survival is poor.

Few take their plight as personally as the Lummi Nation, one of several coastal Indian tribes that occupy land from British Columbia south to Oregon. Their 21,000-acre reservation stretches across the western flank of Bellingham, Wash., a city just south of the Canadian border.

A female orca, right, known as J-35 or Tahlequah, is seen pushing the body of her dead newborn calf in the Salish Sea on July 25, 2018. Photo courtesy of Ken Balcomb, Center for Whale Research

The Lummis refer to the whales as “qwe lhol mechen,” or “people that live under the water.” The tribe sees the whole Tahlequah affair as a wordless warning from the whales that, environmentally, time is running out.

“These are their relatives under the water going extinct,” said Kurt Russo, a non-Lummi who is a senior strategist for the tribe’s Sovereignty and Treaty Protection Office. “This is a fight for their relatives. This is our sacred obligation.”

The Tahlequah drama is simultaneous with the tribe’s campaign to force a seaquarium 3,000 miles away to return its prize performing orca to the waters where she once lived — among the San Juan Islands, an archipelago in Washington state.

It was among those island waters — specifically Whidbey Island’s Penn Cove — that a few dozen orcas were snatched in the summer of 1970 and sold to various theme parks, decimating the gene pool of remaining whales. The event, which involved planes and explosives and resulted in the deaths of five whales, infuriated local residents. Since then, all the whales captured that summer have died except one.

Master carver Jewell James plays a drum during a rally in May 2018. Photo © Nancy Bleck Slanay Sp’ak’wus

The tribe calls her Tokitae. And now they’re redoubling their efforts to return her to the native waters of the Salish Sea to be reunited with her mother. An exhibit that opened Saturday (Dec. 8) at the Florida Museum of Natural History in Gainesville tells her story.

Tokitae was captured Aug. 8, 1970, as a 4-year-old, then renamed Lolita by her new owners at the Miami Seaquarium. The now-52-year-old orca has been the subject of numerous efforts — including those of a former Washington state governor, the mayor of Miami Beach and the Miami Beach city commission — to get her back to the waters of Puget Sound.

“Tokitae is a symbol of a relationship we’ve condoned,” said Jewell Praying Wolf James, the master totem carver for the Lummi Nation who wears a black hoodie decorated with a stylized red and white orca. “Here’s a being who used to roam the waters who’s now enclosed in a tank that’s always in the sun.”

James is one of the more public voices for the Lummis. His 16-foot totem of the hapless Tokitae made a national tour last spring in an effort to pressure the Seaquarium to release the whale. The totem, painted in black, white, red and blue, shows the whale with a large blue oval and a mouthful of bared teeth. A male figure sits atop the figure to symbolize how the tribe had married into the whales and became one of them so as to bring whales into the human family.

Bellingham Unitarian Fellowship held a dedicatory service for the totem May 9 before a trip by a car caravan from Washington state to Miami. A Lummi demonstration in front of the Seaquarium on May 27 later got no response from officials there other than to say Lolita is safe where she is.

The totem pole of Tokitae, or Lolita, is parked in front of the Miami Seaquarium in May 2018. The orca Lolita has been in captivity since 1970. Photo © Paul Anderson

Her story is a 21st – century version of “Free Willy,” the 1993 film that ramped up support for the freeing of Keiko, a killer whale trapped in a Mexico marine park. Keiko was eventually freed in 2002, but, unable to contact the whale pod in which he had been born, died a year later.

The Lummis won’t give up until Tokitae too is back in their ancestral waters where her whale pod — led by Tokitae’s mother — still swims. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration says orcas typically live 50-60 years in the wild, but it’s not unusual for females to last up to 80-90 years.

Meanwhile, the Tokitae/Lolita drama might have slipped away unnoticed had it not been for the Tahlequah drama that captivated the media in July and August.

On Oct. 9, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, which includes Florida, rejected a petition to reopen a lawsuit to get the Seaquarium to release the whale. The ruling sentenced Lolita to “a lifetime of physical and psychological harm,” said Jared Goodman, general counsel for the People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals.

“If you were to be outside the Miami Seaquarium most nights, you can hear her calling,” Russo said. “She has called every night for 47 years. If you were to hear her mother’s call, they are identical. They are telling us something.”

Lolita performs a show at Miami Seaquarium in 2011. Photo by Leonardo DaSilva/Creative Commons
Lolita the whale performs a show with staff at Miami Seaquarium in 2009. Photo by Isabelle Puaut/Creative Commons

Unitarians and others religious groups have backed the Lummis. Unitarian Universalist congregations are based on seven principles, “four of them having to do with social and environmental justice,” said Deb Cruz, a member of the Bellingham Unitarian Fellowship and president of Justice Washington, a state action network involving social justice issues.

Tribal members haven’t forgotten the days when Indian children were sent to boarding schools in Salem, Ore., and Lynden and Everett, Wash., in the early 1900s. They were forbidden to speak their tribal dialects and by the 1980s, certain Coast Salish languages were almost extinct. They have been reclaimed only through extensive efforts by the tribes.

Tokitae is seen as a modern-day “child” undergoing the same exile that Indian children once did and to this day, her removal from Puget Sound is referred to as an “abduction.”

“For the Lummis, it’s like your cousin is in captivity,” said Jessie Dye, program and outreach director for Earth Ministry, a faith-based environmental stewardship and advocacy nonprofit in Seattle. “You want to get her out.”

A map of the San Juan Islands in the Salish Sea. Image courtesy of Creative Commons

Dye has helped round up support for coastal tribes among the 500 member congregations of Earth Ministry, but faith groups haven’t always been so responsive. It wasn’t until 1987 that bishops and denominational executives around the Pacific Northwest offered a public apology to Coast Salish tribes for taking part in the destruction of Native spiritual practices. In 1997, they reaffirmed that apology.

“One of the reasons we have this collaboration is the tribes — as much as they’ve been harmed by the Christian community — speak the same language,” she said. “They too talk of a Creator. Every religious denomination in the Abrahamic traditions speaks on stewardship. Not one of them would say letting a species such as the orca go extinct is good stewardship of God’s creation.”

Dye has gathered more than 100 signatures from religious organizations across the region for an orca task force convened by the governor earlier this year. The most radical short-term fix would involve removing four to six dams across the state.

Orcas feast on adult chinook salmon, whose numbers in the state’s rivers have dropped by at least half in the past 25 years. Dams block the journeys of young salmon from their spawning beds inland to the ocean and then back to Puget Sound. One reason Tahlequah’s baby may have died is that the mother was underfed and her calf was born malnourished.

It might take only a few months to dismantle the dams, but that solution pits the tribes, many scientists and western Washington residents against farmers in eastern Washington who oppose the dams’ removal.

Russo, the tribe’s senior strategist, believes the return of Tokitae would be a needed shot in the arm not only for the dam removal movement but also for the whales themselves.

“There is going to be a moment in the future when Tokitae is going to be out from her sanctuary and she will have echolocated her mother, and Tokitae and her mother are going to break through the water together,” he said. “That’s what they do when they have a reunion. This is a spiritual undertaking. It’s not just about bringing a whale home. This is about reunion and remembrance and healing.”

Demonstrators welcome the totem pole of Tokitae, or Lolita, with a sign as it arrives at Miami Seaquarium on May 27, 2018. Photo © SacredSea.org

(An exhibit and film presentation on orcas runs through May 5, 2019, at the Florida Museum of Natural History in Gainesville. The totem pole of Tokitae, carved by Jewell James, will be displayed and a floor-to-ceiling video will feature underwater footage of the orca, along with the voices of Lummi elders. )


Lummi Nation totem pole making journey to Biden

BELLINGHAM, Wash. (AP) - A totem pole carved at the Lummi Nation from a 400-year-old red cedar will begin a cross-country journey next month, evoking an urgent call to protect sacred lands and waters of Indigenous people.

The journey, called the Red Road to DC, will culminate in early June in Washington, D.C., The Seattle Times reported.

The expedition will start at the Lummi Nation outside Bellingham, Washington, and will make stops at Nez Perce traditional lands Bears Ears National Monument in Utah the Grand Canyon Chaco Canyon, New Mexico the Black Hills of South Dakota and the Missouri River, at the crossing of the Dakota Access Pipeline, where thousands protested its construction near Native lands.

This fall, the pole will be featured at the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian. A special exhibition was developed by The Natural History Museum and House of Tears Carvers at the Lummi Nation, which is gifting the pole to the Biden administration.

Head carver and Lummi tribal member Jewell Praying Wolf James said he and a team ranging in age from 4 to 70 carved the pole beginning this winter.


A Totem Pole Carved by Lummi Nation Citizens As a Gift for Biden Prepares for Epic Journey to Washington

BELLINGHAM, Wash. — A 24-foot totem pole carved by Lummi Nation tribal members is getting its finishing touches this week before embarking on a cross country journey—deemed the Red Road to D.C.— from Washington state to Washington D.C. next month as a gift to the Biden administration.

Along the way, the pole will make stops—accompanied by a team of about a dozen of its carvers—at sacred Native American sites in Idaho, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico and South Dakota before reaching its final destination: the Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian, where it will be displayed this fall.

The purpose of the journey is to bring recognition, honor, and calls to prayer for sacred sites threatened by development and resource extraction, according to the main carver, Jewell Praying Wolf James. James is the only surviving member of the Lummi Nation’s House of Tears Carvers.

“We’re going to be working with local tribes to perform various blessing ceremonies and working together to help each other watch out for these sacred sites so that corporations or governments don’t go in and needlessly destroy them,” James said in a recorded interview where he describes the symbols chiseled into the 400-year-old red cedar.

Courtesy Sul ka dub (Freddie Lane, Lummi Tribe)

Among the traditional Native lands the totem pole will make stops at on its journey across the United States is Bears Ears National Monument in Utah, a protected area where Navajo Nation citizens are currently calling upon the Biden administration to restore and expand after its protected acreage was shrunk by 85 percent under former President Donald Trump.

Other stops include the Black Hills of South Dakota and the Missouri River, where the Dakota Access Pipeline crosses just half a mile upstream of the Lummi Nation’s reservation. Earlier this month, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers said they will allow DAPL to continue to flow without a federal permit, despite strong pressure by Native Americans and environmental groups that had their hopes up that the Biden administration would order the pipeline be shut down.

This week, the group announced that, due to an earlier-than-expected completion of the totem pole, it will first embark on a grassroots organized tour of the West Coast prior to heading east. The group will head south to San Diego from the end of April through May 24, making stops at tribal territories along the way, said Freddie Sul ka dub Lane, Lummi Nation citizen and Northwest tour organizer.

The cross-country stops will be lived streamed from the following locations, according to the Red Road to D.C. website. For live updates, interested spectators can follow updates on the group’s Facebook page.

Lummi Nation carvers aged four years old to 70 participated in the construction of the totem pole, James said. Each carving on the pole gives nod to specific Native American folklore and tribal connections that span beyond the Canadian and Mexican border, he explained in his artist’s statement.

The pole includes Chinook salmon, a wolf, a bear, an eagle, and seven tears—a reference to seven generations of trauma passed on from colonialism. Additionally, the pole includes an image of a child in jail in reference to the U.S.-Mexico border issues and the bloodline relationship of immigrants seeking entry to the country whose lands they once occupied. “Those are our people over there,” James said.

Courtesy Sul ka dub (Freddie Lane, Lummi Tribe)

According to the head carver, working on totem poles opens up a path to the spirit. He said he hopes the gifted pole will transmit that spirit to Washington D.C. and allow the Biden administration to follow through on their treaty obligations.

The Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian Acting Director, Machel Monenerkit, said in a statement to Native News Online that the museum serves as a venue to foster dialogue about the important contemporary issues impacting Indian Country.

“The journey of the Lummi Nation's totem pole raises awareness of sacred sites threatened by development and resource extraction,” she said. “We look forward to finalizing the details on when and how to mark the occasion of its arrival to the museum.”

James agreed that the purpose of the Red Road to D.C. journey, at its core, is to drive conversation.

“Many of us believe that the United States owes it to us to listen. They entered into a sacred relationship with us, some people call it a treaty,” James said. “But they use their voices to promise. To us, when you use your voice, it takes the sacred wind and the great spirit gives you the energy to talk, and your commitment is one of spiritual significance to Native Americans. We hope by bringing this totem pole to Washington, D.C., we’ll also awaken the sacred commitment the United States has to the Native American Nations.”

Dates and destinations for the Red Road to D.C.:

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Lummi Tribe of the Lummi Reservation

The federally recognized Lummi Nation is the third largest tribe in Washington State. The Lummi are the original inhabitants of Washington’s northernmost coast and southern British Columbia. For thousands of years, they have lived on the shores and waters of Puget Sound.

Official Tribal Name: Lummi Tribe of the Lummi Reservation

Dirección: 2665 Kwina Road, Bellingham, WA 98226
Teléfono: (360) 312-2260
Fax: (360) 384-0803
Email:

Recognition Status: Federally Recognized

Traditional Name / Traditional Meaning:

Lhaq’temish, meaning People of the Sea, or The Lummi People

Common Name / Meaning of Common Name:

Alternate names / Alternate spellings / Misspellings:

Name in other languages:

State(s) Today: Washington

Traditional Territory:

The Lummi are the original inhabitants of Washington’s northernmost coast and southern British Columbia. For thousands of years, they have lived on the shores and waters of Puget Sound. The Lummi people traditionally lived near the sea and in mountain areas and returned seasonally to their longhouses located at a number of sites on the present reservation and on the San Juan Islands.

Confederacy: Salish

The Lummi Nation signed the treaty of Point Elliot in 1855 ceding much of their aboriginal lands in western Washington. In return they received a reservation that originally covered 15,000 acres. Today, approximately 12,000 acres remain in Indian control.

Reservation: Lummi Reservation

The reservation occupies a small peninsula between Bellingham Bay and Georgia Strait.The Lummi Reservation is seven miles northwest of Bellingham, Washington, in the western portion of Whatcom County 95 miles north of Seattle. The reservation is a five mile long peninsula which forms Lummi Bay on the west, Bellingham Bay on the east, with a smaller peninsula of Sandy Point, Portage Island and the associated tidelands.
Land Area: 12,000 acres, with 2,126 square miles along Canadian border between Cascade Mountains and Georgia Strait.
Tribal Headquarters: Bellingham, WA
Time Zone: Pacífico

Population at Contact:

Registered Population Today:

Tribal Enrollment Requirements:

Genealogy Resources:

Charter: In 1948 the Lummi Nation adopted a Tribal Constitution.
Name of Governing Body: Tribal Council
Number of Council members: 11
Dates of Constitutional amendments: Amended and ratified in 1970, which created the present government structure.
Number of Executive Officers: 4 – Chairman, Vice-Chairman, Secretary, Treasurer

All tribal members are members of the General Council which meets at least once a year at which time one-third of the Tribal Council is elected. The council appoints tribal members to serve on committees that oversee tribal enterprises on behalf of the Council.

Language Classification:

Language Dialects:

Number of fluent Speakers:

Bands, Gens, and Clans:

Related Tribes:

Traditional Allies:

Traditional Enemies:

Ceremonies / Dances:

Modern Day Events & Tourism:

Lummi Stommish Water Festival in June.

Legends / Oral Stories:

Art & Crafts:

Subsistance:

The Lummi Indians were fishermen and semi-sedentary hunter gatherers. Smoke-dried seafood, camas bulbs, sun-dried berries and all species of shellfish, crab, salmon, trout, elk, deer, and other land and sea mammals made up the traditional Lummi diet.

Economy Today:

Food processing, wood products, petroleum refining, manufacturing, and agriculture. Other tribal enterprises include the Lummi Mini Mart, Lummi Fisherman’s Cove, and 260 Tobacco & Fine Spirits .

Religion & Spiritual Beliefs:

They expressed their language and religious traditions through elaborate carvings on totems and ceremonies.

Burial Customs:

Wedding Customs

Education and Media:

Tribal College: Northwest Indian College (NWIC)
Radio:
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How Native Americans were vaccinated against smallpox, then pushed off their land

More than 180 years ago, the federal government launched the largest effort of its kind in the United States to vaccinate Native Americans against the deadly disease of smallpox.

With it ravaging Native American communities in the 1830s, the disease became a widespread public health crisis and threatened to curtail the government’s massive effort to force thousands of Native Americans from their lands in the East and push them West to reservations.

In 1832, Congress passed legislation — the Indian Vaccination Act — that allowed the federal government to use about $17,000 to hire doctors to vaccinate Native Americans who were living near White frontier settlements. Many White settlers feared that Indians would spread the disease to them.

The act was intended to vaccinate Indians against smallpox but for entirely mercenary reasons, according to Regis Pecos, a member of the Pueblo de Cochiti tribe in New Mexico.

“It wasn’t in the interest of Indian people,” said Pecos, who is also co-director of the Leadership Institute at the Santa Fe Indian School. “It was a way of vaccinating them to move them so White Americans could move them into Western lands.”

Fast forward to the 21st century, when the coronavirus pandemic has swept through the more than 500 federally recognized tribes in the United States and devastated some tribal communities. Native Americans have among the worst infection rates in the country — nearly three times higher than the overall U.S. population.

Tribes across the country are racing to get vaccine doses to their members and launching messaging campaigns to try to persuade Native Americans who may be reluctant to take them. The level of reluctance to take a vaccine stems from decades of mistrust between sovereign nations and the federal government, according to Native American medical experts, including over medical and scientific studies that were conducted in unethical ways.

“Historical trauma over these past wrongs is embedded in the DNA for some of our people,” said Dakotah Lane, a doctor and member of the Lummi Nation, recently told Indian Country Today.

“We need to remember that our communities have survived TB and smallpox, and a long history of lies and wrongdoing by the federal government,” said Lane, who is also the Lummi’s health director.

Donald Warne, an Oglala Lakota doctor from the Pine Ridge Reservation, said the Indian Removal Act, the massacre at Wounded Knee and other atrocities have contributed to vaccine hesitancy. And so has the memory of the distribution of blankets infected with smallpox, which he calls “the first documented case of bioterrorism with the purpose of killing American Indians.”

When the vaccinations started to roll out to communities across the United States, Anthony S. Fauci, the nation’s top infectious-disease doctor, announced on national television, “The cavalry is coming!”

For Native Americans, the reference to the cavalry was disturbing, not reassuring.

“To Indian people, it signifies the beginning of a massacre. It references the threat of soldiers on horseback during the Indian Wars,” Pecos said.

The history of Native Americans being mistreated in scientific and medical research is lengthy.

In the 1990s, a DNA study done among the Havasupai Tribe in Arizona took blood samples from tribal members in what was supposed to be a survey on high rates of diabetes. But the samples were used in unauthorized studies that challenged the tribe’s traditional ways of teaching. Arizona State University, which helped oversee the study, eventually settled and paid the Havasupai $700,000 after the tribe filed a lawsuit.

In 1975, Government Accountability Office investigators found that medical studies and drug treatments — overseen by the Indian Health Service — had been done without parents’ consent on Native American kids who suffered from trachoma, an infectious eye disease caused by bacteria, at Indian boarding schools in the late 1960s and early 1970s.

Because the IHS oversaw boarding schools, the agency and the Proctor Foundation for Research in Ophthalmology at the University of California, which did the trachoma experiments, defended their work without consent, saying they “believed it was not necessary since IHS acts as legal guardian for the children while they attend the boarding schools.”

At one point, the researchers told investigators that because the medical studies had started and the “school year was already underway, they believed that it would confuse the parents if they began seeking informed consent at that time.”

Another case the GAO looked at from the 1970s found that more than 3,400 Native American women under 21 who suffered from mental health issues were involuntarily sterilized in parts of Arizona, Oklahoma and New Mexico.

The sterilizations, the report said, were not classified as “voluntary and therapeutic” in the IHS system.

Similarly, at the White Mountain Apache reservation in Arizona, studies for pulmonary disease were done among Native American children, but overseers later found that parents in many instances had not given full consent for testing.

That type of history in medical abuse cases resonates in what Pecos calls “generational trauma.”

“There are older members in our communities who have lived and experienced those times, or their parents, grandparents or great-grandparents did, and they remember,” Pecos said. “It is not just something in a distant past.”

At Lane’s tribe, the Lummi Nation outside Bellingham, Wash., there are still many tribal elders and other members who recall how researchers came onto the reservation in the early 1980s and asked to do research on children with problems.

The tribe gave an “informal consent” to the researcher, according to Lane. He said the researcher interviewed families and kids and eventually took pictures and used them in educational classes for others in the medical community.

But some of the families who had participated in the research were not clearly told that their child had fetal alcohol syndrome and were surprised when they saw their pictures being used in presentations and hearing that they had the disease.

“Some got up and said, ‘I didn’t know that,’ ” Lane said. “ ‘How dare you use that picture.’ ”

The tribe later formed a review board that oversees and approves any scientific research done at the reservation and to tribal members, and that group has been actively involved in reviewing the tribe’s participation in vaccinations against the coronavirus.

In the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe that occupies land stretching across New Mexico, Arizona and Utah, many members still vividly remember how researchers came to the reservation in the 1990s and wanted to look at an outbreak of the “hantavirus,” a pulmonary illness that was dubbed the “Navajo flu” by some researchers.

The disease “stigmatized the Navajo and led them to develop and tighten their response and participation in medical research,” according to Lane.

This winter, Navajo Nation President Jonathan Nez encouraged the roughly 173,000 people who live on the reservation to get vaccinated against the coronavirus, which has devastated their community. He said tribal leaders have worked hard to overcome the “distrust in Indian Country of government” and science.

But during the brutal smallpox outbreak nearly two centuries ago, politics played a role in the rollout of the vaccine for Native Americans, as officials used their positions to “selectively protect American Indian nations who were involved in treaties favorable to the U.S.,” J. Diane Pearson wrote in an article for the University of Minnesota Press called “Lewis Cass and the Politics of Disease: The Indian Vaccination Act of 1832.”

“Indian nations viewed as aggressor nations” were not vaccinated, Pearson said.

In Ohio, the Seneca and Shawnee tribes had chiefs who refused to leave their lands to head west because they had heard of the smallpox epidemic wiping out tribes west of the Mississippi River. One group of Chickasaws “who were unprotected from smallpox were moved into a country ablaze with smallpox,” Pearson wrote.

“Vaccinations,” Pearson wrote, “were used to enable Indian removal, to permit relocation of Native Americans to reservations, to consolidate and compact reservation communities, to expedite westward expansion of the United States, and to protect Indian nations viewed as friendly or economically important to the United States.”

The smallpox epidemic nearly wiped out three tribes — the Mandan, Arikara and Hidatsa. Their combined population plummeted from 10,000 to 160 in one year. They combined to stay alive and are what’s now known as the Three Affiliated Tribes in central North Dakota.

In 1838, an agent overseeing the Sioux in South Dakota reported to a government superintendent how some Native Americans in the Great Plains were being wiped out from smallpox they’d gotten from White traders. Joshua Pilcher, a 47-year-old Virginian, wrote that “half of the Hidatsa had died, as had half of the Arikara,” according to a 2005 article in the Smithsonian Magazine.

“The great band of [Assiniboine], say 10,000 strong, and the Crees numbering about 3,000 have been almost annihilated. … The disease had reached the Blackfeet of the Rocky Mountains,” Pilcher wrote. “All the Indians on the Columbia River as far as the Pacific Ocean will share the fate of those before alluded to.”

The Indians of the Great Plains, Pilcher said, were “literally depopulated and converted into one great graveyard.”


Ver el vídeo: NO VIAJES A LA INDIA ANTES DE VER ESTO (Julio 2022).


Comentarios:

  1. Saelac

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  2. Holter

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  3. Levi

    Es solo condicional, nada más.

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